##### Udemy

# Business Economics - Learn to Evaluate Business & Projects

Understand Fundamentals of Engineering Economics that Enable Students to Perform Economic Analysis of Different Projects

- Understand major principles of economic analysis for decision making among alternative courses of action in engineering.
- Apply cost estimation and alternative analysis techniques for engineering applications.
- Demonstrate knowledge of cost estimation techniques and probabilistic risk analysis.
- Apply the concepts and techniques of linear programming for optimization of economic resources

- Evaluate and justify selection of different alternatives by using economic analysis techniques
- Understand the Concepts of Time Value of Money
- Understand the Concepts of Depreciation for taking decision between the Alternatives wisely.

**Engineering economics**, previously known as **engineering economy**, is a subset of economics concerned with the use and “application of economic principles” in the analysis of engineering decisions. As a discipline, it is focused on the branch of economics known as microeconomics in that it studies the behavior of individuals and firms in making decisions regarding the allocation of limited resources. Thus, it focuses on the decision-making process, its context and the environment

As a discipline though, it is closely related to others such as statistics, mathematics, and cost accounting. It draws upon the logical framework of economics but adds to that the analytical power of mathematics and statistics

Engineers seek solutions to problems, and along with the technical aspects, the economic viability of each potential solution is normally considered from a specific viewpoint that reflects its economic utility to a constituency. Fundamentally, engineering economics involves formulating, estimating, and evaluating the economic outcomes when alternatives to accomplish a defined purpose are available.

Since engineering is an important part of the manufacturing sector of the economy, engineering industrial economics is an important part of industrial or business economics. For this reason, the major courses that are covered in this course are:

The economics of the management, operation, and growth and profitability of engineering firms;

Macro-level engineering economic trends and issues;

Engineering product markets and demand influences; and

The development, marketing, and financing of new engineering technologies and products.

This Course Includes the following topics.

**Introduction:**Engineering economy defined, measures of financial effectiveness, non-monetary factors and multiple objectives. Principles of engineering economy.**The Economic Environment:**Consumer and producer goods, measures of economic worth. price, supply, & demand relationship. production. factors of production laws of return.**Cost Concepts & Analysis:**Sunk & opportunity costs. fixed, variable, and incremental costs, recurring & nonrecurring costs. direct, indirect. and overhead costs, standard costs. Break-even analysis, unit cost of production, cost-benefit analysis, feasibility studies, value analysis in designing & purchasing.**Time Value of Money:**Simple interest, compound interest, cash flow diagrams, interest formulas, nominal versus effective interest rate, continuous compounding.**Depreciation and Depletion:**Purpose of depreciation, types of depreciation, economic life and what can be depreciated?**Comparing Alternatives:**Present economy, selection among machines, materials, processes, and designs, payback period method, present worth method, uniform annual cost method, rate of return method, alternatives having identical lives, alternatives having different lives.**Linear Programming:**Mathematical statement of linear programming problems graphic solution. Simplex method and duality problems.

**RECOMMENDED BOOKS**

(01) Engineering Economics by William G. Sullivan & James A. Bontadelli

(02) Operational Research: An Introduction by Hamdy A Taha

**COURSE OUTLINE OF THIS COURSE IN DETAIL**

**Introduction of Economics**

Introduction to Economics and Difference between Wants and Desires

Introduction to Economics

Difference between Want and Desires

Do resources fulfill wants or desires?

Macro and Micro Economics, Engineering Economics and Economic Behavior

Two Dimensions of Economics

Macro Economics

Micro Economics

Engineering Economics

Economic Environment/Behaviour

Classification of Consumer and Producer Goods

Theory and Laws of Demand and Supply

Theory of Demand and Supply

Law of Supply

Determination of Supply

Shifts in Supply

Law of Demand

Demand Schedule or Demand Curve

Determination of Demand

Shifts in Demand

Supply Function/Equation

Demand Function/Equation

Understanding the Market Equilibrium and Elasticity concepts in Economics

Market Equilibrium

Equilibrium’s Mathematical Representation

Price Elasticity of Demand

Elasticity and Revenue

Special Cases of Elasticity

Market Structure and Types of Businesses

Market Structure

Types of Businesses

**Understanding the Time Value of Money**

Understand Simple and Compound Interest with Problems and Cash Flow Diagramming

Simple Interest

Compound Interest

Simple vs. Compound Interest

Notation and Cash Flows Diagram

Cash Flow Diagraming

Present and Future Values of Single Cash Flow

Discrete Cash Flow Examples Illustrating Equivalence

Present Equivalent of Future Amount of Money

Solving Problem related to Time Value of Money

Annuity and Deferred Annuity and Solving Example Problems related to them

Annuity

Relating a Uniform Series (Annuity) to its Present and Future Equivalence

Present Equivalent of Annuity

Solving Problems Related to the Annuity

Deferred Annuities (Uniform Series)

Present Equivalent of Deferred Annuity

Solving Problems related to Present Equivalent of Deferred Annuity

Uniform Arithmetic Gradient of Cash Flow

Gradient Problem and using Gradient Conversion for Solving Problems

Gradient Problem

Using Gradient Conversion Factor for solving Problems

Nominal and Effective Interest Rate and Concepts of APR and APY

Nominal and Effective Interest Rates

Concept of APR (Annual Percentage Rate) and APY (Annual Percentage Yield)

Time-based Units (Interest Rate Statement)

Solving Problems related to Nominal and Effective Interest Rates

Solving Problems related to Nominal and Effective Interest Rates

Derivation of Effective Annual Interest Rate

Equivalence Relation: Payment Period and Compounding Period

Effective Interest rate of any time and Financial Effectiveness and Efficiency

Effective Interest rate for any time period

Equivalence Relation (PP<CP)

Financial Effectiveness and Efficiency

**Evaluating an Engineering Project (Comparison and Selection of Alternatives)**

Taking Decision on the Basis of Present and the Future Worth Method

The Present worth Method

The decision of PW Method

Relation between i & PW

Find that the Project is Economically Justified?

The Future worth Method

Taking Decision on the Basis of Annual Worth Method

The Annual worth Method

Comparing the Business Alternatives for taking the Decision

Comparing Alternative Businesses

Solving Problems related to Present worth analysis

Solving Problems related to Future worth analysis

**Linear Programming**

Objective Functions, Constrains and Main Elements of Linear Programming

Operations Research

Objective Functions and Constraints of Linear Programming

Main Elements of Linear Programming

The Reddy Mikks Company Model

**Payback Period of any Investment**

Understand Payback and Discounted Payback Period of any Business

Case 1 : For Even Cash Flow

Case 2: For Uneven Cash Flow

Solving Problems related to the Payback Period (Even and Uneven Cash Flows)

Discounted Payback Period

Internal Rate of Return and Solving Problems related to it

Internal Rate of Return

Solving Problems Related to Internal rate of Return

Understand about Incremental Cash Flow and Mutually Exclusive Project Analysis

Incremental Cash Flow

Mutually Exclusive Project Analysis

Replacement Decision Analysis and Lives of Asset

Replacement Decision Analysis

Type of Lives of Asset

1. Economic Life

2. Ownership Life

3. Physical Life

4. Useful Life

Replacement Analysis Using PW (Present worth Analysis)

Replacement Analysis using Estimated Uniform Annual Cost (EUAC)

Solving Problems related to EUAC for Replacement Analysis

Understand about the Economic Life of New Asset

**Depreciation**

Deprecation of Tangible and Intangible Property and Methods of Deprecation

Deprecation of Tangible and Intangible Property

Types of Depreciation (Normal and Monetary)

Methods of Deprecation

1. Straight Line (SL) Method

2. Sum of the Year Digit Method

3. Declining Balance Method

4. Double Declining Balance

Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery (MACRS)

Declining Balance with switch over Straight Line Method

Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery (MACRS)

Solving Problems related to Depreciation and MACRS

**Cost Concept in Economics**

Concepts of Cost, Volume and Break-Even Point for any Start-up Business

What is meant by Cost?

Elements of the Product

Prime Cost vs Conversion Cost , Fixed Cost vs Variable Cost and Types of Cost

Prime Cost vs Conversion Cost

Fixed Cost vs Variable Cost

Types of Cost

· Differential Cost

· Opportunity Cost

· Sunk Cost

· Standard/Average/Budgeted Cost

· Controllable Cost

· Uncontrollable Cost

Understanding Curve of Demand, Supply and Break-Even Point for Profit and Loss

Concept of Cost, Volume, and Break-Even Point

Understanding about Break-Even Point

Conditions for the Profit and Loss in the Business

The curve of Demand, Supply and Break-Even Point for Determining Conditions for the Profit and Loss

Solving Problems related to the Topic

Evaluating Projects with Benefit-Cost Ratio Method and Dis Benefits

Evaluating Projects with Benefit-Cost Ratio Method

Using Conventional and Modified Approaches of Present Worth

Dis benefits of Benefits Cost Ratio Method

- The course is designed for learners of all levels.
- All concepts are introduced slowly and gradually, but comfort with thinking analytically will be helpful.

- You can be a student in high school or university, an entrepreneur, a lawyer, a banker or an engineer This course is designed for people who are not coming from economics background, or just started studying Economics or studied Economics but forgot most of it
- Anyone wanting to progress from Beginner to Advanced in Engineering Economics
- Who want to start up their Business and want to take Good Decisions between the Business Alternatives.

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